Reasonable belief that the victim is over the age of consent In some jurisdictions it is a defense if the accused can show that he or she reasonably believed the victim was over the age of consent. Jurisdictions use a variety of terms for the offense, including child sexual abuse , statutory rape , illegal carnal knowledge , corruption of a minor,  besides others. Ages can also vary based on the type of calendar used, such as the Lunar calendar ,  how birth dates in leap years are handled, or even the method by which birth date is calculated. For example, the age of consent in the US state of Delaware is 18, but it is allowed for teenagers aged 16 and 17 to engage in sexual intercourse as long as the older partner is younger than In countries where there are gender-age differentials, the age of consent may be higher for girls—for example in Papua New Guinea , where the age of consent for heterosexual sex is 16 for girls and 14 for boys,  or they may be higher for males, such as in Indonesia, where males must be 19 years old and females must be 16 years old.
Johnson and signed by justices Susan Owens, Richard B. Sanders and Tom Chambers, argues the majority did not properly interpret state law and used the wrong statutes to make its argument, while ignoring others that would have fit the case better. The sex of each participant can also influence perceptions of an individual's guilt and therefore enforcement. Close-in-age exemptions Some jurisdictions have laws explicitly allowing sexual acts with minors under the age of consent if their partner is close in age to them. In Kuwait, this means that boys must be at least 17 and girls at least 15 years old. Jurisdictions use a variety of terms for the offense, including child sexual abuse , statutory rape , illegal carnal knowledge , corruption of a minor,  besides others. These include Canada in —from 14 to 16 ; and in Europe, Iceland in —from 14 to 15 , Lithuania in —from 14 to 16 , Croatia in —from 14 to 15 , and Spain in —from 13 to Examples of such positions of trust include relationships between teachers and students. Several Western countries have raised their ages of consent recently. For instance, in Canada , the age of consent is 16, but there are two close-in-age exemptions: This applies in cases where any of the partners travels into or out of the United States, or from one state into another, for the purpose of an illegal sexual encounter. Often, enforcement is not exercised to the letter of the law, with legal action being taken only when a sufficiently socially-unacceptable age gap exists between the two individuals, or if the perpetrator is in a position of power over the minor e. Ages can also vary based on the type of calendar used, such as the Lunar calendar ,  how birth dates in leap years are handled, or even the method by which birth date is calculated. Her columns appear regularly on editorial pages of The Times. In Canada , the age of consent for anal sex is officially higher at 18 years, compared with 16 years for vaginal and oral sex. In these jurisdictions, it is illegal to have sexual intercourse outside of marriage, so the de facto age of consent is the marriageable age. They have 90 days to bring that petition. For example, while the age of consent is 14 in Germany and 16 in Canada, it is illegal in both countries to engage in sexual activity with a person under 18 if the activity exploits the younger person. Stephens and signed by justices Barbara Madsen, Gerry Alexander, Mary Fairhurst and James Johnson, the justices argue that they must focus on the plain language of the statute, which prohibits sexual relations between school employees and registered students. In countries where there are gender-age differentials, the age of consent may be higher for girls—for example in Papua New Guinea , where the age of consent for heterosexual sex is 16 for girls and 14 for boys,  or they may be higher for males, such as in Indonesia, where males must be 19 years old and females must be 16 years old. In both the United Kingdom and Western Australia, for example, the age of consent was originally 21 for same-sex sexual activity between males with no laws regarding lesbian sexual activities , while it was 16 for heterosexual sexual activity; this is no longer the case. The enforcement practices of age-of-consent laws vary depending on the social sensibilities of the particular culture see above. In the decision, written by Justice Debra L. Valentine, Grays Harbor County deputy prosecuting attorney, said she felt the Supreme Court took a common sense approach to the case and was clear in explaining the reasons for their decision. However, where such a defense is provided, it normally applies only when the victim is close to the age of consent or the accused can show due diligence in determining the age of the victim e.
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