In Uganda, females who lived with their father or father figure only were more likely than those who lived with no parent or parent figure to have used a contraceptive at last sex odds ratio, 2. For example, females tend to marry early in all the countries except Ghana: Karim AM et al. Hollis Gentry, a genealogy specialist at the Smithsonian, said at the announcement of the project in Los Angeles on Friday: Coresidence was measured as a four-category variable—residing in the same household with both parents or parent figures, with mother or mother figure only, with father or father figure only, or with no parents or parent figures—and indicated the physical presence of a significant parent figure in the life of an unmarried adolescent.
In contrast to the reported levels of monitoring, parental communication about sex-related matters was low: Estimated HIV prevalence levels were 1. Having had sexual intercourse in the 12 months prior to the interview and having used any contraceptive method at last sex among those who had had sex in the last 12 months were the two dependent variables. Macro International, , No. Multivariate Results Multivariate analyses showed significant negative associations between monitoring by parents or parent figures and the likelihood that adolescents had had sex in the last 12 months, and this factor had the strongest and most consistent association with sexual activity Table 2. Bivariate analysis compared gender differences for two outcomes among unmarried 15—year-olds—having had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months and, among those who had had sex in this period, contraceptive use at last sex. Furthermore, the question about receiving information on contraceptive methods did not assess the tone of the exchange or the underlying message given, and so in cases where the message was negative, we would expect it to deter adolescents from using contraceptives i. Only one significant association was found regarding adolescents' living arrangements and sexual activity: The last measure was constructed from responses to questions regarding about 20 household assets, services and amenities, and quintiles were based on the wealth status of all households in the national survey for each country, following a protocol used in the Demographic and Health Surveys. Because parents are in regular contact with children, they help to shape both their behavior and the social context in which they grow up. Furthermore, parental communication with adolescents about sex-related matters was not consistently associated with the odds of sexual activity across the four countries; only among Malawian males and Ugandan females was such communication associated with elevated odds of having had sex in the last year 2. We sought informed consent directly from 18—year-olds; for adolescents younger than 18, we obtained consent from a parent or guardian before approaching the eligible adolescents for assent to participate in the survey. Parents were even less likely to be information sources regarding contraceptive methods: Handwritten records collecting information on newly freed slaves that were compiled just after the civil war will be available for easy searches through a new website, it was announced on Friday. The question was preceded by a statement that this and the next question referred to people who may have talked to the respondent about personal things. Coresidence was measured as a four-category variable—residing in the same household with both parents or parent figures, with mother or mother figure only, with father or father figure only, or with no parents or parent figures—and indicated the physical presence of a significant parent figure in the life of an unmarried adolescent. Also, some adolescents without biological parents or parent figures may have thought that this question was not relevant to them, even though it was phrased to include prior experiences with parents who were no longer around. A two-stage, cluster sample design was used: Furthermore, the negative relationship between a Ghanaian female living with her mother or mother figure only and contraceptive use was puzzling, and could be attributed to factors such as an adolescent's desire not to "disappoint" her mother, since some discussions of contraceptive use involve the parent or parent figure talking to rather than with the young person. Results from focus group discussions among adolescents in these countries support the argument that unmarried girls who get pregnant and hence bring shame to a family experience stronger social sanctions than do unmarried boys who get girls pregnant. RESULTS Unmarried adolescents reported moderate to high levels of parental monitoring and low levels of parent-child communication about sexual matters. All the records are expected to be online by late , to coincide with the opening of the new Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture on the National Mall in Washington. Various studies have examined the influence that types of parenting have on the behaviors of young people, including risk-taking behavior. The association often varies by the measures employed, and by other issues such as gender e. One such project that was introduced to Africa Club was one that involved creating a national discussion of sex, sexuality, family and the Global Afrikan founded on youth debates.
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